PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1 en-US <p>All Publication rights reserved with the editorial board, PJHS. No individual or organization is allowed to copy or reproduce any meterial publication in this journal without the permission of Chief Editor.</p> editor@pjhs.com.pk (Chief Editor) info@pjhs.com.pk (Saad Khan) Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 CAN A DIABETIC WOMAN AFFORD TO GET PREGNANT? http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/32 <p><span class="fontstyle0">CAN A DIABETIC WOMAN AFFORD TO GET PREGNANT?</span> </p> Faryal Baddia Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/32 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 ROLE OF VITAMIN C SUPPLEMENTATION IN PREVENTION OF PRE LABOUR SPONTANEOUS RUPTURE OF CHORIOAMNIOTIC MEMBRANES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/33 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong>&nbsp;Prelabour rupture of membranes means the rupture of chorioamniotic membranes at least one hour prior to the initiation of labour after thirty seven completed weeks of gestation and when it occurs before term that is thirty seven weeks of gestation, it is called preterm prelabour rupture of membranes. This study was conducted to know the role of Vitamin C supplementation in preventing pre labour spontaneous rupture of chorioamniotic membranes in pregnancy.&nbsp;<br><strong>METHODS:&nbsp;</strong>This Randomized controlled trial was conducted at Mother and Child Health Unit II, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad, from May to November 2009. 200 pregnant women,12-20 weeks of gestation, with singleton pregnancy were included excluding non compliant women, those with cervical circlage, having obstetric indication for cesarean section or active smokers were sampled through non-probability convenient sampling. Then they were randomly assigned to two groups; both groups received Folic acid and Iron supplements. Group 1 was study group and was supplemented with Vitamin C 500mg/ day while Group 2 was control group which didn’t receive Vitamin C. An informed consent was taken. Data was analysed using SPSS version 11 and Chi sq test was applied for comparison at 5% level of significance.<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong>&nbsp;Mean age of all participants was 25.5 + 4.8 years .Association between prevention of pre labour spontaneous rupture of chorioamniotic membranes and supplementation of Vit C was found non-significant.<br><strong>CONCLUSION:&nbsp;</strong>Antioxidants like Vitamin C may not be helpful in preventing rupture of membranes at this gestation and dosage and more work needs to be done.&nbsp;<br><strong>KEYWORDS:&nbsp;</strong>PROM, PPROM, Vitamin C, Chorioamnionitis.</p> Asma Khan, Fareeha Naeem, Seema Gul Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/33 Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 MEAN CORD HEMOGLOBIN AND SERUM FERRITIN IN NEONATES BORN TO ANEMIC MOTHERS PRESENTING AT TERM http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/34 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong>&nbsp;Anemia in pregnant women is a major challenge to obstetric care in developing nations. Maternal iron deficiency is a main reason of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is a considerable relationship among maternal and cord hemoglobin and ferritin levels. Objective of this study was to determine mean cord hemoglobin and serum ferritin of neonates and mothers.<br><strong>METHODS:&nbsp;</strong>This descriptive cross-sectional study of 60 women was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi. The study was conducted from 25-06-2015 to 24-12-2015 Patients admitted at term were selected by consecutive non-probability sampling technique. A thorough history and examination was done for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used for ferritin assay .The maternal and cord blood samples were discarded after analysis.<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong>Mean age of the patients was 32.63±3.58 years; mean gestational age was 38.28±0.90 weeks. Larger part of the patients were having gravidity 2-5 and Para 1-4. Mean±SD of neonatal serum ferritin was 86.15±54.86, mean cord hemoglobin 16.15±2.18, mean maternal hemoglobin was 8.99±1.09 and mean maternal ferritin was 7.33±2.11.&nbsp;<br><strong>CONCLUSION:&nbsp;</strong>Maternal anemia has negative effects on cord blood Hb and serum ferritin in neonates.<br><strong>KEYWORDS:&nbsp;</strong>Anemia, Hemoglobin, Serum ferritin, Neonates</p> Maria Ashraf, Zartaj Hayat, Atika Masud, Seema Gul Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/34 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 08:27:27 +0000 DIALATATION AND CURRETTAGE VERSUS PIPELLE METHOD http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/35 <p><span class="fontstyle0">BACKGROUND: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Anemia in pregnant women is a major challenge to obstetric care in developing nations. Maternal iron deficiency is a main reason of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is a considerable<br>relationship among maternal and cord hemoglobin and ferritin levels. Objective of this study was to determine<br>mean cord hemoglobin and serum ferritin of neonates and mothers.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">METHODS: </span><span class="fontstyle2">This descriptive cross-sectional study of 60 women was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics<br>and Gynecology Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi. The study was conducted from 25-06-2015 to 24-12-2015<br>Patients admitted at term were selected by consecutive non-probability sampling technique. A thorough history and<br>examination was done for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique<br>was used for ferritin assay .The maternal and cord blood samples were discarded after analysis.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">RESULTS: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Mean age of the patients was 32.63±3.58 years; mean gestational age was 38.28±0.90 weeks. Larger part<br>of the patients were having gravidity 2-5 and Para 1-4. Mean±SD of neonatal serum ferritin was 86.15±54.86, mean<br>cord hemoglobin 16.15±2.18, mean maternal hemoglobin was 8.99±1.09 and mean maternal ferritin was 7.33±2.11.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">CONCLUSION: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Maternal anemia has negative effects on cord blood Hb and serum ferritin in neonates.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">KEY WORDS: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Anemia, Hemoglobin, Serum ferritin, Neonates.</span></p> Fareeha Naeem, Asma Khan, Seema Gul Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/35 Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 FREQUENCY OF COMPLETE HEART BLOCK IN PATIENTS AFTER TOTAL CORRECTION OF TETRALOGY OF FALLOT http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/36 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong>&nbsp;Tetralogy of Fallot is diagnosed in approximately 3.5% of patients who have congenital heart defects. The condition consists of ventricular septal defect (VSD), overriding aorta, right ventricular (RV) outflow tract obstruction, and RV hypertrophy. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common congenital cyanotic heart disease with an incidence of three per 10,000 live births, and accounts for about 5-7% of all congenital heart disease.Objective of this study was to determine the frequency of complete heart block in patients after total correction of tetralogy of fallot.&nbsp;<br><strong>METHODS:&nbsp;</strong>This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Cardiovascular, Surgery, Lady Reading Hospital,Peshawar from 8/10/2015 to 8/10/2016 in which a total of 222 cases were observed. All patients with tetralogy of fallot scheduled for total correction, aged 5-25 years. Surgical repair was done on all included children by single expert cardiac surgeon having minimum of five years of experience. All the patients were followed up regularly till 9th day and electrocardiograms (ECG) were done in all patients to confirm complete heart block (CHB). All information was recorded into a proforma especially designed for this purpose.&nbsp;<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong>&nbsp;Mean age was 2.97 years with SD equal to ± 01.89. Fifty eight percent patients were male while 42% patients were female. The frequency of complete heart block was found to be 3%.&nbsp;<br><strong>CONCLUSION:&nbsp;</strong>Our study concludes that with careful surgical technique, total correction of fallot’s tetralogy can be conducted in children and young adults, with a very low risk of complete hearth block and other conduction abnormalities.&nbsp;<br><strong>KEYWORDS:&nbsp;</strong>Complete heart lock, Total correction, Tetralogy of Fallot.&nbsp;</p> Ajab Khan, Muhammad Iqbal, Hafiz Sajid, Imran Khalil, Gibran Khan, Nayyar Waseem, Others Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/36 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 08:32:13 +0000 PATTERNS OF ENERGY DRINK CONSUMPTION AMONG UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/37 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong>&nbsp;The trend of energy drink consumption has grown rapidly in recent years. Prevalence of use of energy drinks among adolescent and young adults has continued to increase and young adults aged 18–34 are a major target group. Objective of this study was to assess the reasons for consumptions of energy drinks by medical students and adverse effects experienced by them.&nbsp;<br><strong>METHODS:&nbsp;</strong>A cross sectional study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students of Rehman Medical College Peshawar, from 1st March to July 2017. A sample size of 200 students was selected by simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to record the information about demographic characteristics of medical students, reasons and patterns of energy drinks consumption in last one month and associated side effects of using energy drinks.&nbsp;<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong>&nbsp;Out of 200 participants, 134 (67%) respondents reported ‘ever consuming an energy drink’, whereas 100 participants (50%) reported consuming energy drink currently. Staying awake was the most common reason to consume energy drinks, as reported by 40% of medical students, followed by energy booster 37%, driving a car<br>for long time 35%, while study 24%, sports 20% and 17% to treat a hangover. Regarding adverse effects of energy drinks, heart palpitation were experienced by 13% medical students, 11% reported insomnia and increased urination, 10% reported ever having headache and 9 % anxiety from consuming energy drinks.&nbsp;<br><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong>&nbsp;Energy drinks consumption was prevalent among undergraduate medical students for a variety of reasons. Moreover adverse effects from consuming energy drinks were somewhat common. Health interventions program regarding the awareness of energy drinks’ ingredients and careful use among undergraduate medical students are recommended.&nbsp;<br><strong>KEYWORDS:&nbsp;</strong>Energy drinks, Medical students, Health behavior.&nbsp;</p> Shakeela Asif, Alia Qazi, Nida Asif, Hamana Tahir, Tauseef Aman Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/37 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 08:40:41 +0000 MARITAL SATISFACTION AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG WORKING COMMUNITY IN MALAYSIA http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/38 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong>&nbsp;Marriage is a critical event in our lives. Satisfaction level in marital life has a direct effect on our mental health.This study was designed to highlight the importance of Marital Satisfaction and Mental Health among working communityin Malaysia. Objective of this study was to investigate relationship between marital satisfaction and mental health, and to compare marital satisfaction between male and female among working community of Malaysia.<br><strong>METHODS:&nbsp;</strong>This Study was conducted in city Puturajaya (Malaysia) from February to June, 2016.Convenient sampling technique was used to collect data on 60 individuals. Married volunteer male and female were interviewed on a structured questionnaire.&nbsp;<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong>&nbsp;The study sample consisted of 30 male and 30 female (N=60). Results revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between marital satisfaction and mental health with r = .400, p &lt; 0.01 respectively.<br><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong>&nbsp;This study concludes that marital satisfaction is positively correlated with mental health. Satisfactory and healthy relationship increased person’s wellbeing and mental health.&nbsp;<br><strong>KEYWORDS:&nbsp;</strong>Marital satisfaction, Mental health, Correlation, Wellbeing.</p> Ishtiaq Ali Khan, Iqtidar Taufiq, Farhan Khashim Al Swailmi, Muhammad Asif Kamal, Asma Perveen Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/38 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 08:57:13 +0000 SPECTRUM OF BELL’S PALSY: AN EXPERIENCE AT DHQ TEACHING HOSPITAL D.I. KHAN, PAKISTAN http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/39 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong>Bell’s palsy is responsible for about 75% of all cases of acute facial palsy, the incidence of BP varies in different countries around the globe. Bell’s palsy is presumed to be immune mediated, probably with an infection as the provoking event. Bell’s palsy usually starts with an inability to fully close the mouth and eye on the affected side of the face, subsequently causing difficulties in eating and speaking, later on manifests with corneal drying and erosion. Objective of this study was to collect data on clinical characteristics and to review the treatment results of Bell’s Palsy.&nbsp;<br><strong>METHODS:&nbsp;</strong>This cross sectional study was conducted in Neurosurgery department of DHQ Hospital, Gomal Medical College D. I. Khan, from April 2015 to March 2016. All the diagnosed patients of Bell’s palsy of either age and sex were included in the study, while patients with associated co-morbid were excluded from the study. All the patients were treated conservatively. The follow up was done at 1 week, 1 month and 2 months post-treatment. A database was compiled using medical records. Data collection included variables, such as age, sex,side of involvement, disease severity by House Brackmann classification and improvement in symptoms at follow-up visits.<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong>Thirty-nine (51.3%), were female. Age ranged from 7-75 years, with mean age of 34.12± 15.97 years. Right side of the face was involved in most of the patients, 46 (60.5%). The duration of symptoms between the appearance of disease and the first visit ranges from 1 – 30 days. Majority of the patients 35 (46.1%) were presented with House Brackmann grade 4 at the time of initial visit. At final follow-up, major bulk of the patients, 57 (75%) were improved having House Brackmann grade 1. We lost 5 patients at final follow up.<br><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong>Bell’s palsy is almost equally common in both genders, in middle age group, with dominancy of right face involvement. With optimum conservative treatment most of the patients improved.&nbsp;<br><strong>KEYWORDS:&nbsp;</strong>Bell’s Palsy, Treatment, House Brackmann Grade.</p> Muhammad Usman, Shahid Nawaz, Sarah Rehman Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/39 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 09:04:10 +0000 PREVALENCE OF PRE-DIABETES AMONG STUDENTS OF AYUB MEDICAL COLLEGE, ABBOTTABAD http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/40 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong>The world is facing the challenge of combating Non-communicable diseases. One of the most important in the list of non-communicable diseases is Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes is not a single disease but a group of metabolic disorders occurring either due to decreased insulin secretion, or resistance to insulin actions on target tissues, or most commonly both.This study was conducted to know the number of students with Pre-diabetes.<br><strong>METHODS:</strong>&nbsp;This cross sectional survey was conducted from March 2016 to June 2016 on MBBS and BDS students of both genders.Sampling technique was probability simple random. The socio-demographic data and data about family history, dietary habits, etc was collected through questionnaire. The blood sugar level was measured by students themselves after practicing the technique properly and under supervision with a standard Glucometer.<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong>Out of 138 students, 129 were respondents and 15(11.6%) of them were found Pre-diabetics. Their ages ranged from 18 to 25 (mean 21.53 with standard deviation 1.73). Fasting blood sugar levels were 70 minimum and 108 maximum ( Mean 90.53 ±7.41). Pre-diabetics were more in male students as compared with female students. 11 male out of 78 total male students and 4 out of 51 female were found Pre-diabetics. Blood sugar level also increased with increase in BMI.&nbsp;<br><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong>Increased BMI, decreased physical activity, and dietary habits showed an increase in the prevalence of prediabetes within the student population.&nbsp;<br><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong>Prevalence, Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Pre-diabetes, Diabetes.</p> Syed Muhammad Hassan, Osama Iftikhar, Rafiullah, Shabana Wali, Shagufta Ali, Muhammad Imran Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/40 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 09:57:28 +0000 FREQUENCY OF POST-OPERATIVE SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION IN PATIENTS AT AYUB TEACHING HOSPITAL, ABBOTTABAD, PAKISTAN http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/41 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong>Surgical wound infection is the most common nosocomial infection. The surgical wound infection frequency and rate depends upon certain risk factors such as associated medical condition (diabetes, hypertension, antibiotics use, surgical procedures, and post-operative hospital stay). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of surgical wound infections at a tertiary care hospital.&nbsp;<br><strong>METHODS:</strong>This was a 6 months cross sectional study conducted in surgical unit of Ayub teaching hospital, Abbottabad. During the study period data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire for all the patients who underwent surgery in the surgical ward of Ayub teaching hospital. 200 patients were selected by non-probability convenient sampling technique. Infected cases were identified using CDC, USA definition for surgical site infections. SPSS version 16 was used to analyze collected data.<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong>62 (31.0%) out of 200 patients had developed surgical wound infection while the remaining 138 (69.0%) patients had no sign of surgical wound infection. The frequency of surgical wound infection was found high in elective procedures 36 (18.0%) as compared to emergency surgical procedures 26 (13.0%). Frequency of surgical wound infection in males was 41 (20.5%) while females had 21 (10.5%).<br><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong>Surgical wound infections prolong the hospital stay, increases the treatment cost, bed occupancy in ward and patient morbidity. Age, Diagnosis/reason for operation, electivity of procedure and associated medical conditions were identified as the main contributing factors towards the development of surgical wound infections<br><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong>Surgical wound infection, Fever, Wound discharge.</p> Shah Fahad Qayyum, Qaisar Ali, Muhammad Ayyaz, Muhammad Imran Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/41 Mon, 22 Apr 2019 07:33:51 +0000 GAPS IN THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES OF COMMUNITY MEMBERS AND POLIO WORKERS REGARDING POLIO ERADICATION http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/42 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong>&nbsp;Polio Eradication initiative since its initiation in Pakistan has focused on dissemination and advocacy and raising awareness regarding polio eradication in addition to high oral polio vaccine (OPV) coverage. While the focus had been on the aforesaid activities the generation of demand for routine Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) services, strengthening health system and other complementary issues e.g. access to safe drinking water and improvement in sanitation practices for the prevention of polio transmission were not given the due importance resulting in failure to polio eradication in Pakistan. This study was conducted to assess &amp; identify gaps in the knowledge, attitude and practices between community members &amp; polio workers regarding polio eradication in District Quetta.<br><strong>METHODS:</strong>&nbsp;This mixed methodology cross sectional survey was carried out from 1st April to 30th June,2010 during polio NID round of Baleli-A zone of District Quetta, Balochistan. A total of 96 households were selected through simple random sampling. Community household members and all the polio campaign workers in Baleli-A zone administered a structured questionnaire. Observations were carried out through structured checklist and as participant observer.<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong>&nbsp;Knowledge about polio transmission was 85% in polio workers and 43% in community members. The 85% of the polio workers and 68% of the community members reported that complete vaccination can prevent from polio. A gap in the knowledge level of polio worker and community members was observed regarding the routine EPI diseases. Knowledge about polio and measles was better compared to other EPI diseases. Most important activity for the polio workers (55%) was vaccinating the children while 40% reported finger marking as the most important activity. All polio workers and 77% of the community members see repeated polio rounds as beneficial in their area. 80% of the polio workers did not feel fatigued The main reported reason for refusing polio vaccination was family planning both by community members (67%) and polio workers (85%).<br><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong>&nbsp;Keeping in view the above findings regarding Baleli-A zone, the eradication of polio in the study area and other similar high-risk populations will remain a challenge in the quest for polio eradication in Pakistan.&nbsp;<br><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong>&nbsp;Polio, Knowledge Attitude and Practices, Health Systems, Polio virus.</p> Abdul Majeed, Chaudhry Muhammad Amjad, Nida Liaqat, Muhammad Zeeshan Haroon, Hammad Habib, Muhammad Bilal Khan Copyright (c) 2018 PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://www.pjhs.com.pk/index.php/V1I1/article/view/42 Mon, 22 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000